Online Databases of Seals in Arabic Script

Islamic Seals Database, Chester Beatty Library Dublin, 2011-.  Crowd-sourced cataloging project whose website ( has been under reconstruction since the end of 2018; an archived version is available through the Wayback Machine:

Ottoman Sultan Tugras, 2002.  The Turkish-English website is a labor of love project of Ercan Mensiz; available at:

See also Günay Kut and Nimet Bayraktar, Yazma eserlerde vakıf mühürleri, 1st ed., Ankara: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları, 1984.

Dagmar A. Riedel

First published, 13 April 2013

Last updated, 25 August 2021

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